Candidates and Campaigns

Why Not a Woman of Color?: The Candidacies of US Women of Color for Statewide Executive Office

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Oxford University Press (September 2015) 

This review essay focuses on the intersection of gender and race in statewide executive officeholding. The author argues that scholarly neglect of this topic risks naturalizing the dearth of women of color in statewide executive positions, sending the message that it is understandable that women lack access to those offices and/or that such offices aren’t realistically obtainable. Using data from the Center for American Women and Politics, the author examines the status of women of color in statewide offices and state and party patterns in their presence as candidates and officeholders. Directions for future research are suggested. 

Article
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns
Women of Color in Politics
Statewide Executive

Electing Women of Color: The Role of Campaign Trainings

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Journal of Women, Politics, & Policy (May 2015)  

The increasing racial diversity of women in the United States makes the underrepresentation of women of color in politics an important area for research. To better understand the reasons for the underrepresentation of women of color and how more women of color might be elected in the future, this article presents a case study of a unique campaign training program designed for women of color. The program is the Center for American Women and Politics’ (CAWP) New Jersey Ready to Run® Diversity Initiative. Campaign trainings have proliferated in recent years and seem to play a disproportionate role in women’s election to office. By examining perceptions of the barriers facing women of color and by identifying the mechanisms by which the Diversity Initiative seeks to help women, this article sheds light on the status of women candidates of color and the role of campaign trainings more generally. For political practitioners, this article suggests the utility of creating programs for women of color. 

Article
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Women of Color in Politics

Navigating Gendered Terrain: Stereotypes and Strategy in Political Campaigns

by Kelly Dittmar
Temple University Press, January 2015, 230 pages

From the presidential level down, men and women who run for political office confront different electoral realities. In her probing study, Navigating Gendered Terrain, Kelly Dittmar investigates how gender influences the campaign strategy and behavior of candidates today. Concurrently, she shows how candidates' strategic and tactical decisions can influence the gendered nature of campaign institutions.

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns

The Changing Face of Representation: The Gender of U.S. Senators and Constituent Communications

by Kim L. Fridkin and Patrick J. Kenney, Arizona State University
University of Michigan Press, 2014, 256 pages

This book is part of the CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics published by the University of Michigan Press in association with CAWP. Fridkin and Kenney examine in detail senators' official websites,  press releases and local news stories, as well as surveys of citizens to discern constituents' attitudes about their senators.    

Book
Research
CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics
Candidates and Campaigns
Impact of Women Public Officials
Congress

Gender in Campaigns for the U.S. House of Representatives

 by Barbara Burrell, professor emeritus, Northern Illinois University
University of Michigan Press, 2014, 296 pages

This book is part of the CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics published by the University of Michigan Press in association with CAWP. Barbara Burrell presents a comprehensive comparative examination of men's and women's candidacies for the U.S. House of Representatives in elections from 1994 through 2012. 

Book
Research
CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics
Candidates and Campaigns
Congress

Money in Politics with a Gender Lens

A collaboration between the National Council for Research on Women, the Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP) at Rutgers University’s Eagleton Institute of Politics, and the Center for Responsive Politics
January 2014

“Money in Politics with a Gender Lens” is the first attempt to explore the effects of the Citizens United decision by looking specifically at how women fared as candidates and acted as donors in elections held after the U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2010. 

Report
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns

Cracking the ‘Highest, Hardest Glass Ceiling’: Women as Presidential and Vice Presidential Contenders

by Kelly Dittmar and Susan J. Carroll
Book chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics (3rd Ed.), eds. Susan J. Carroll and Richard L. Fox. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2013

This chapter focuses on the history and treatment of women as presidential and vice-presidential candidates.  It begins with an overview of the pioneering women who have dared to step forward as presidential or vice-presidential candidates throughout American history.  It then turns to the 2008 campaigns of Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin, analyzing the ways that gender stereotypes influenced the strategies they employed, the media’s coverage of their campaigns, and public reactions to their candidacies. It also examines Michele Bachmann’s 2012 primary campaign, asking whether the pioneering candidacies of Clinton and Palin altered the path in any way for the women who will follow them as presidential and vice presidential candidates. 

Book Chapter
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Federal Executive

Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, 3rd Edition

Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2013 Third Edition, 287 pages 

The third edition of Gender and Elections highlights the most important developments for women as voters and candidates in the 2012 elections and providing a more long-term, in-depth analysis of the ways that gender has helped shape the contours and outcomes of electoral politics in the United States. Individual chapters demonstrate the importance of gender in understanding and interpreting presidential elections, presidential and vice-presidential candidacies, voter participation and turnout, voting choices, congressional elections, the political involvement of Latinas, the participation of African American women, the support of political parties and women's organizations, candidate communications with voters, and state elections. Earlier editions (First Edition 2006, Second Edition 2010) provide similar analysis for the 2004 and 2008 elections.

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties
Women Voters and the Gender Gap
Women of Color in Politics
Federal Executive
Congress
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

Women’s Election to Office in the Fifty States: Opportunities and Challenges

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Book chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics,
Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2013 Third Edition, pp. 265-287.

Discussion of the barriers and opportunities women face in seeking state legislative and statewide executive office and the differences across states in women's officeholding. Party is a key factor in understanding women's candidacies and women's representation. 

Book Chapter
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

Primary Problems: Women Candidates in U.S. House Primaries

by Kelly Dittmar
10/3/2013

Despite slight gains in congressional representation in 2012, women make up only 18.3% of the United States Congress. Research points to multiple reasons for women's political underrepresentation, including the need for more women to run. But when women do run, how do they fare?

Fact Sheet
Research
A Closer Look
Candidates and Campaigns
Congress

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