Candidates and Campaigns
Gender in Campaigns for the U.S. House of Representatives
by Barbara Burrell, professor emeritus, Northern Illinois University
University of Michigan Press, 2014, 296 pages
This book is part of the CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics published by the University of Michigan Press in association with CAWP. Barbara Burrell presents a comprehensive comparative examination of men's and women's candidacies for the U.S. House of Representatives in elections from 1994 through 2012.
Cracking the ‘Highest, Hardest Glass Ceiling’: Women as Presidential and Vice Presidential Contenders
by Kelly Dittmar and Susan J. Carroll
Book chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics (3rd Ed.), eds. Susan J. Carroll and Richard L. Fox. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2013
This chapter focuses on the history and treatment of women as presidential and vice-presidential candidates. It begins with an overview of the pioneering women who have dared to step forward as presidential or vice-presidential candidates throughout American history. It then turns to the 2008 campaigns of Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin, analyzing the ways that gender stereotypes influenced the strategies they employed, the media’s coverage of their campaigns, and public reactions to their candidacies. It also examines Michele Bachmann’s 2012 primary campaign, asking whether the pioneering candidacies of Clinton and Palin altered the path in any way for the women who will follow them as presidential and vice presidential candidates.
Women’s Election to Office in the Fifty States: Opportunities and Challenges
by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Book chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics,
Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2013 Third Edition, pp. 265-287.
Discussion of the barriers and opportunities women face in seeking state legislative and statewide executive office and the differences across states in women's officeholding. Party is a key factor in understanding women's candidacies and women's representation.
Primary Problems: Women Candidates in U.S. House Primaries
by Kelly Dittmar
Despite slight gains in congressional representation in 2012, women make up only 18.3% of the United States Congress. Research points to multiple reasons for women's political underrepresentation, including the need for more women to run. But when women do run, how do they fare?
More Women Can Run: Gender and Pathways to the State Legislatures
by Susan Carroll and Kira Sanbonmatsu
Oxford University Press, September 2013, 176 pages
Analyzing nationwide surveys of state legislators conducted by CAWP, More Women Can Run challenges assumptions of a single model of candidate emergence with a relationally embedded model of candidacy. It reorients research on women's election to office and offers strategies for political practitioners concerned about women's political equality. Video of a book talk given by Carroll and Sanbonmatsu available here.
Turning the Tables: Behind Every Successful Woman
by Kelly Dittmar
Book chapter in Women and Executive Office: Pathways and Performance, ed. Melody Rose, Lynne Reiner Publishers
This chapter analyzes the 2008 Democratic presidential primary to consider the ways in which a male spouse challenges a female candidate’s image as a capable and independent executive. Dittmar examines the media’s framing of both male and female spouses on the campaign trail and analyzes the extent to which coverage reflects a transgendering, or equal gender valuing, of candidate spouses’ roles. She finds a combination of spousal role evolution and constraint in media frames, simultaneously empowering presidential spouses while attributing greater gender power to the masculine partner – whether candidate or spouse.
Gender Stereotypes and Gender Preferences in American Politics
by Kira Sanbonmatsu and Kathleen Dolan
Chapter in Improving Public Opinion Surveys: Interdisciplinary Innovation and the American National Election Studies, Eds. John H. Aldrich and Kathleen M. McGraw. Princeton University Press, 2012
Can More Women Run? Reevaluating Women’s Election to the State Legislatures
by Susan J. Carroll and Kira Sanbonmatsu
Paper presented at the 2010 American Political Science Association annual meeting
Do men and women take similar or different paths to public office? This paper examines the occupational and educational backgrounds, family situations, and prior political experiences of women state legislators and their male counterparts.
Negotiating Gender: Campaign Practitioners’ Reflections on Gender, Strategy, and Campaigns
by Kelly Dittmar
Paper presented at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Washington, DC
This paper explores the variation among and between campaign consultant perspectives, highlighting areas where gender matters more or less and recognizing the influence of consultants’ identities on their perceptions of gender and campaigns. As political actors with a growing presence and influence on campaigns, political consultants provide important insight to the campaign process and the gender dynamics therein. This insight contributes to a deeper understanding of campaigns as gendered institutions, whereby gender norms and expectations are embedded in the culture, structure, and processes of electoral politics.
Life's A Party: Do Political Parties Help or Hinder Women?
by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Harvard International Review, 2010
Sanbonmatsu evaluates the role of political parties in electing women to office. She argues that the history of U.S. parties indicates that women’s organizations and movements, women leaders, and women voters are the keys to making political parties a help rather than a hindrance to women’s representation.