Candidates and Campaigns

State Elections: Where Do Women Run? Where Do Women Win?

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, 1st Edition, Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2005 First Edition, 240 pages 

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Candidates and Campaigns

‘She Brought Only a Skirt:’ Gender Bias in Newspaper Coverage of Elizabeth Dole’s Campaign for the Republican Nomination

by Caroline Heldman , Susan J. Carroll & Stephanie Olson
Political Communication 22:3 (2005)

This article examines differences in print media coverage of Elizabeth Dole and five other Republican contenders for the presidential nomination in 1999. Findings indicate that Dole received a differential amount and type of print media coverage that was decidedly gendered and may have hindered her candidacy. Journalists also repeatedly framed Dole as the “first woman” to be a serious presidential candidate and focused on her gender more than any other aspect of her candidacy, suggesting implicitly, if not explicitly, that she was a novelty in the race rather than a strong contender with a good chance of winning.

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Candidates and Campaigns
Federal Executive

Democrats, Republicans, and the Politics of Women’s Place

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
University of Michigan Press, 2004, 328 pages 

This comprehensive study of gender equality debates in the party system from 1968 to 2000 reveals the impact that these changes have had on the political parties. It brings new theory, data, and analyses to bear on the questions of party politics, electoral realignment, and the women's movement.  

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Research
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Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties

Gender-Related Political Knowledge and the Descriptive Representation of Women

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Political Behavior, 2003 (December)

This study finds that political knowledge of one kind--knowledge about the actual level of women's representation--is related to support for having more women in office. Individuals who underestimate the percentage of women in office are more likely than individuals who know the correct percentage to support increasing women's representation. Meanwhile, individuals who overestimate the percentage of women in office are less likely to support increasing women's representation. Ironically, women are more likely than men to overestimate the presence of women in office. 

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Candidates and Campaigns
Civic and Political Activism
Congress

"Political Knowledge and Gender Stereotypes"

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
American Politics Research, 2003 (November) 

This study uses original data to investigate the individual-level determinants of voters’ political gender stereotypes. The author finds that beliefs about men’s emotional suitability for politics predict voter stereotypes about the ability of politicians to handle issues, whereas political knowledge predicts voter stereotypes about politicians’ issue positions. Therefore, whereas some political gender stereotypes can primarily be explained by beliefs about the traits of men and women in general, other stereotypes are more related to knowledge about politics. This study suggests that whereas some political gender stereotypes may change if differences in the behavior of men and women politicians narrow, other stereotypes may be more enduring and less susceptible to change.

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Candidates and Campaigns
Women Voters and the Gender Gap

Candidate Recruitment and Women's Election to the State Legislatures

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2003, 47 pages

This report points out that where women run is a critical but overlooked question in studies on women’s successes in running for office. The report finds that candidate emergence and recruitment differs across states. To varying degrees, party recruitment, beliefs about women’s electability, interest groups, and the presence of women legislators, women leaders, and women’s organizations in a state all play a role in the likelihood of a woman running for the legislature.

Report
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Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties

Women and American Politics: New Questions, New Directions

Edited by Susan J. Carroll 
Oxford University Press, 2003, 262 pages

This volume presents a research agenda, developed by leading scholars of American politics, suggesting directions that could fruitfully shape the study of women and American politics in the early twenty-first century. Contributors suggest approaches, methods, and topics for future research on political recruitment, campaign strategy, money, political leadership, parties and women's organizations, the gender gap in voting and public opinion, media, women of color, and participation outside of conventional electoral politics.

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Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns
Civic and Political Activism
Political Parties
Women Voters and the Gender Gap
Women of Color in Politics

Gender, Political Ambition, and the Initial Decision to Run for Office

by Richard L. Fox 
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2003, 14 pages 

Funding for this report was provided by the Center for American Women and Politics, Rutgers University. The report sheds light on how women and men think about running for office and the manner in which their attitudes will affect the future prospects of gender parity in U.S. governing bodies. Fox concentrates his research on factors such as age, party affiliation, personal income, external support, and notoriety.

Article
Research
Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns

“Gender Stereotypes and Vote Choice"

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
American Journal of Political Science, 2002 (January)

The author argues that many voters have a baseline gender preference to vote for male over female candidates, or female over male candidates. Using original survey data, the author finds that this general predisposition or preference can be explained by gender stereotypes about candidate traits, beliefs, and issue competencies, and by voter gender. The author also argues that this baseline preference affects voting behavior.

Article
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Candidates and Campaigns
Women Voters and the Gender Gap

Gender Differences in Print Media Coverage of Presidential Candidates: Elizabeth Dole's Bid for the Republican Nomination

by Caroline Heldman, Susan J. Carroll, and Stephanie Olson 
American Political Science Association, 2000, 15 pages 

This report examines Elizabeth Dole's bid for the Republican presidential nomination and the ways in which gender bias affected media coverage.

Article
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Candidates and Campaigns

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