Women of Color in Politics Research

Electing Women of Color: The Role of Campaign Trainings

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Journal of Women, Politics, & Policy (May 2015)  

The increasing racial diversity of women in the United States makes the underrepresentation of women of color in politics an important area for research. To better understand the reasons for the underrepresentation of women of color and how more women of color might be elected in the future, this article presents a case study of a unique campaign training program designed for women of color. The program is the Center for American Women and Politics’ (CAWP) New Jersey Ready to Run® Diversity Initiative. Campaign trainings have proliferated in recent years and seem to play a disproportionate role in women’s election to office. By examining perceptions of the barriers facing women of color and by identifying the mechanisms by which the Diversity Initiative seeks to help women, this article sheds light on the status of women candidates of color and the role of campaign trainings more generally. For political practitioners, this article suggests the utility of creating programs for women of color. 

Article
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Women of Color in Politics

The Status of Black Women in American Politics 2014

By the Center for American Women and Politics for Higher Heights Leadership Fund, 2014
Authored by Kelly Dittmar, Ph.D, Assistant Research Professor, Center for American Women and Politics, Rutgers University

This comprehensive report provides a historical outline of black women’s struggle for political representation and discusses the current landscape of political leadership for black women across the country as well as their growing political influence. It demonstrates the need for greater engagement, recruitment, and inclusion of black women in politics and government.

Report
Research
Women of Color in Politics
Congress
Statewide Executive
State Legislature
Local

Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, 3rd Edition

Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2013 Third Edition, 287 pages 

The third edition of Gender and Elections highlights the most important developments for women as voters and candidates in the 2012 elections and providing a more long-term, in-depth analysis of the ways that gender has helped shape the contours and outcomes of electoral politics in the United States. Individual chapters demonstrate the importance of gender in understanding and interpreting presidential elections, presidential and vice-presidential candidacies, voter participation and turnout, voting choices, congressional elections, the political involvement of Latinas, the participation of African American women, the support of political parties and women's organizations, candidate communications with voters, and state elections. Earlier editions (First Edition 2006, Second Edition 2010) provide similar analysis for the 2004 and 2008 elections.

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties
Women Voters and the Gender Gap
Women of Color in Politics
Federal Executive
Congress
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

The Candidacies of U.S. Women of Color for Statewide Executive Office

by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Paper presented at the American Political Science Association annual meeting, Chicago, IL

Drawing on insights from gender, race, and intersectionality research, Sanbonmatsu examines the status of women of color and analyzes the role of parties in shaping their candidacies for statewide elective executive office. While women of color have made important inroads with respect to statewide officeholding, they remain underrepresented as candidates and officeholders in both parties.
 

Conference Paper
Research
CAWP Scholar
Women of Color in Politics
Statewide Executive

Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, 2nd Edition

Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2009 Second Edition, 314 pages 

The 2nd edition of this textbook describes the role of gender in the American electoral process through the 2008 elections. Tailored for courses on women and politics, elections, and gender politics, it strikes a balance between highlighting the most important developments for women as voters and candidates in the 2008 elections and providing a deeper analysis of the ways that gender has helped shape electoral politics in the United States.  Individual chapters demonstrate the importance of gender in understanding presidential elections, voter participation and turnout, voting choices, the participation of African American women, congressional elections, the support of political parties and women's organizations, candidate communications with voters, and state elections. This updated volume also includes new chapters that analyze the roles of Latinas in U.S. politics and chronicle the candidacies of Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin.

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties
Women Voters and the Gender Gap
Women of Color in Politics
Federal Executive
Congress
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics, 1st Edition

Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2005 First Edition, 240 pages 

Gender and Elections offers a systematic, lively, multi-faceted account of the role of gender in the electoral process through the 2004 elections. This volume strikes a balance between highlighting the most important developments for women as voters and candidates in the 2004 elections and providing a more long-term, in-depth analysis of the ways that gender has helped shape the contours and outcomes of electoral politics in the United States. Individual chapters demonstrate the importance of gender in understanding and interpreting presidential elections, voter participation and turnout, voting choices, congressional elections, the participation of African American women, the support of political parties and women's organizations, candidate communications with voters, and state elections. 

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Political Parties
Women Voters and the Gender Gap
Women of Color in Politics
Federal Executive
Congress
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

Increasing Diversity or More of the Same? Term Limits and the Representation of Women, Minorities, and Minority Women in State Legislatures

by Susan J. Carroll and Krista Jenkins 
National Political Science Review 10 (2005): 71-84

This paper examines the question of whether term limits lead to greater diversity among legislators in terms of their gender, race, and ethnicity. Their findings from an analysis of electoral outcomes in states where term limits were in effect in 1998 and 2000 suggest that the answer to the question of whether term limits lead to more diverse legislatures is not straightforward.

Article
Research
CAWP Scholar
Women and Term Limits
Women of Color in Politics
State Legislature

Women and American Politics: New Questions, New Directions

Edited by Susan J. Carroll 
Oxford University Press, 2003, 262 pages

This volume presents a research agenda, developed by leading scholars of American politics, suggesting directions that could fruitfully shape the study of women and American politics in the early twenty-first century. Contributors suggest approaches, methods, and topics for future research on political recruitment, campaign strategy, money, political leadership, parties and women's organizations, the gender gap in voting and public opinion, media, women of color, and participation outside of conventional electoral politics.

Book
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidate Recruitment
Candidates and Campaigns
Civic and Political Activism
Political Parties
Women Voters and the Gender Gap
Women of Color in Politics

Women's Evolving Role in Tribal Politics: Native Women Leaders in 21 Southwestern Indian Nations

by Diane-Michele Prindeville
2002, 36 pages

Funding for this project was provided by a grant from the Center for American Women and Politics, Rutgers University.  Prindeville's study explores the role of Southwestern Native American women leaders in tribal politics, and their right to participate equally with men in their nations’ governance.  

Report
Research
Women of Color in Politics

Women, Black, and Hispanic State Elected Leaders: The 1990 Symposium on the State of the States

Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey 
Center for Public Service, University of Virginia
1991, 106 pages

In December 1990, more than sixty statewide officials, state legislators, other practitioners and scholars gathered for the fourth annual State of the States symposium. The symposium focused on the problems and possibilities that exist for women, Black and Hispanic elected officials. Issues discussed included campaigning and elections, changing political institutions, shaping state policy, and achieving leadership positions. Workshop summaries and participating scholars' papers are included in the report. 

Report
Research
CAWP Scholar
Candidates and Campaigns
Impact of Women Public Officials
Women of Color in Politics
Statewide Executive
State Legislature

Pages