Research and Scholarship

CAWP research and research by CAWP scholars that addresses emerging questions about American women's political participation. 







  • The Money Race for the State Legislature



    by Kira Sanbonmatsu and Claire Gothreau

    This report is the third in the CAWP Women, Money, and Politics series. Analyzing 2020 campaign contributions data, the report examines state legislative contests with a focus on general elections. It identifies a large gender gap in giving to state legislative elections and examines giving patterns by political party. The report also identifies challenges and opportunities facing women candidates, comparing candidates by party and race/ethnicity. This report is made possible through a collaboration with OpenSecrets.

    Report
    CAWP Women, Money, and Politics Series
    Research
    Candidates and Campaigns
    Political Parties
    State Legislature






  • Reaching Higher: Black Women in American Politics 2021



    by Kelly Dittmar, Ph.D.

    This report from the Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP) and the Higher Heights Leadership Fund outlines the status of Black women in American politics as of September 2021. 

    Report
    Research
    Women of Color in Politics
    Federal Executive
    Congress
    Statewide Executive
    State Legislature
    Local






  • Money Matters in the Fifty States



    by Kira Sanbonmatsu and Claire Gothreau

    This report is the second in the CAWP Women, Money, and Politics series. Analyzing 2001-2020 campaign contributions data, the report examines attorney general, secretary of state, and treasurer primary elections and general election contests for all statewide executive offices (other than governor and lt. governor). It identifies challenges and opportunities facing women as donors and candidates with analysis of candidate party and race/ethnicity. This is the companion study to our report on gubernatorial elections, The Money Hurdle. This report is made possible through a collaboration with OpenSecrets.

    Report
    CAWP Women, Money, and Politics Series
    Research
    Candidates and Campaigns
    Political Parties
    Statewide Executive






  • Measuring Success: Women in 2020 Legislative Elections



    by Kelly Dittmar

    Measuring women’s electoral success means placing 2020 outcomes into historical and contemporary context. That is the work done in this report, where CAWP breaks down 2020 congressional and state legislative data by gender, race, and party; puts this data into historical context, with specific comparisons to the 2018 election; analyzes women candidates’ paths to office and strategies for success; and looks ahead to what 2020 election outcomes mean for the future of women in American politics.

    Report
    Research
    Political Parties
    Candidates and Campaigns
    Candidate Recruitment
    Women of Color in Politics
    State Legislature
    Congress






  • By the Numbers: Black Women in the 117th Congress



    by Kelly Dittmar, Ph.D. 

    This update from the Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP) and the Higher Heights Leadership Fund outlines the number of Black women in the U.S. Congress at the start of 2021. 

    Report
    Research
    CAWP Scholar
    Women of Color in Politics
    Congress






  • The Money Hurdle in the Race for Governor



    by Kira Sanbonmatsu, Kathleen Rogers, and Claire Gothreau

    This report is the first in a new CAWP series of reports on the role of money in politics. Analyzing 2000-2018 data from the National Institute on Money in Politics (NIMP), it examines primary and general election receipts and giving patterns by donor gender, identifying opportunities and challenges for women candidates and women donors. Its focus on gender and giving to gubernatorial candidates is unique.

    Report
    CAWP Women, Money, and Politics Series
    Research
    Candidates and Campaigns
    Statewide Executive






  • Who Runs? The Masculine Advantage in Candidate Emergence



    by Sarah Oliver, Towson University and Meredith Conroy, California State University, San Bernadino
    University of Michigan Press, 2020, 168 pages

    This book is part of the CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics published by the University of Michigan Press in association with CAWP. Meredith Conroy and Sarah Oliver focus on the candidate emergence process (recruitment, perceived qualifications, and ambition), and investigate the affects of individuals’ gender personality on these variables to improve theories of women’s underrepresentation in government. 

    Book
    Research
    CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics
    Candidates and Campaigns
    Candidate Recruitment






  • The Paradox of Gender Equality: How American Women's Groups Gained and Lost Their Public Voice



    (New edition, with a new preface)
    by Kristin A. Goss,  Duke University (2020)
    University of Michigan Press, 2020, 264 pages

    This book is part of the CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics published by the University of Michigan Press in association with CAWP. Kristin A. Goss examines how women’s civic place has changed over the span of more than 120 years, how public policy has driven these changes, and why these changes matter for women and American democracy. 

    Book
    Research
    CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics
    Civic and Political Activism






  • Black Women in American Politics 2019



    by Kelly Dittmar, Ph.D.

    This update from the Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP) and the Higher Heights Leadership Fund outlines the status of Black women in American politics in the fall of 2019.

    Report
    Research
    CAWP Scholar
    Women of Color in Politics
    State Legislature
    Local
    Statewide Executive
    Congress






  • Unfinished Business: Women Running in 2018 and Beyond



    by Kelly Dittmar
    Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers University–New Brunswick, 2019

    Gender disparities in American politics were not upended in a single cycle, but the 2018 election marked sites of progress as well as persistent hurdles for women candidates. Evaluating the 2018 election in the context of both past and present offers key insights into the gendered terrain that candidates will navigate in 2020 and beyond. In this report, CAWP combines its unmatched data with a review of the latest research on gender, candidacy, and representation to analyze an unprecedented year for women in American politics, identify sites for both destruction and durability of barriers to women, and offer a guide for gender and

    Report
    Research
    Candidates and Campaigns
    State Legislature
    Statewide Executive
    Congress