Candidates and Campaigns
Electing Women of Color: The Role of Campaign Trainings
by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Journal of Women, Politics, & Policy (May 2015)
The increasing racial diversity of women in the United States makes the underrepresentation of women of color in politics an important area for research. To better understand the reasons for the underrepresentation of women of color and how more women of color might be elected in the future, this article presents a case study of a unique campaign training program designed for women of color. The program is the Center for American Women and Politics’ (CAWP) New Jersey Ready to Run® Diversity Initiative. Campaign trainings have proliferated in recent years and seem to play a disproportionate role in women’s election to office. By examining perceptions of the barriers facing women of color and by identifying the mechanisms by which the Diversity Initiative seeks to help women, this article sheds light on the status of women candidates of color and the role of campaign trainings more generally. For political practitioners, this article suggests the utility of creating programs for women of color.
Navigating Gendered Terrain: Stereotypes and Strategy in Political Campaigns
by Kelly Dittmar
Temple University Press, January 2015, 230 pages
From the presidential level down, men and women who run for political office confront different electoral realities. In her probing study, Navigating Gendered Terrain, Kelly Dittmar investigates how gender influences the campaign strategy and behavior of candidates today. Concurrently, she shows how candidates' strategic and tactical decisions can influence the gendered nature of campaign institutions.
The Changing Face of Representation: The Gender of U.S. Senators and Constituent Communications
by Kim L. Fridkin and Patrick J. Kenney, Arizona State University
University of Michigan Press, 2014, 256 pages
This book is part of the CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics published by the University of Michigan Press in association with CAWP. Fridkin and Kenney examine in detail senators' official websites, press releases and local news stories, as well as surveys of citizens to discern constituents' attitudes about their senators.
Money in Politics with a Gender Lens
A collaboration between the National Council for Research on Women, the Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP) at Rutgers University’s Eagleton Institute of Politics, and the Center for Responsive Politics
“Money in Politics with a Gender Lens” is the first attempt to explore the effects of the Citizens United decision by looking specifically at how women fared as candidates and acted as donors in elections held after the U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2010.
Gender in Campaigns for the U.S. House of Representatives
by Barbara Burrell, professor emeritus, Northern Illinois University
University of Michigan Press, 2014, 296 pages
This book is part of the CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics published by the University of Michigan Press in association with CAWP. Barbara Burrell presents a comprehensive comparative examination of men's and women's candidacies for the U.S. House of Representatives in elections from 1994 through 2012.
Women’s Election to Office in the Fifty States: Opportunities and Challenges
by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Book chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics,
Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2013 Third Edition, pp. 265-287.
Discussion of the barriers and opportunities women face in seeking state legislative and statewide executive office and the differences across states in women's officeholding. Party is a key factor in understanding women's candidacies and women's representation.
Cracking the ‘Highest, Hardest Glass Ceiling’: Women as Presidential and Vice Presidential Contenders
by Kelly Dittmar and Susan J. Carroll
Book chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics (3rd Ed.), eds. Susan J. Carroll and Richard L. Fox. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2013
This chapter focuses on the history and treatment of women as presidential and vice-presidential candidates. It begins with an overview of the pioneering women who have dared to step forward as presidential or vice-presidential candidates throughout American history. It then turns to the 2008 campaigns of Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin, analyzing the ways that gender stereotypes influenced the strategies they employed, the media’s coverage of their campaigns, and public reactions to their candidacies. It also examines Michele Bachmann’s 2012 primary campaign, asking whether the pioneering candidacies of Clinton and Palin altered the path in any way for the women who will follow them as presidential and vice presidential candidates.
Primary Problems: Women Candidates in U.S. House Primaries
by Kelly Dittmar
Despite slight gains in congressional representation in 2012, women make up only 18.3% of the United States Congress. Research points to multiple reasons for women's political underrepresentation, including the need for more women to run. But when women do run, how do they fare?
More Women Can Run: Gender and Pathways to the State Legislatures
by Susan Carroll and Kira Sanbonmatsu
Oxford University Press, September 2013, 176 pages
Analyzing nationwide surveys of state legislators conducted by CAWP, More Women Can Run challenges assumptions of a single model of candidate emergence with a relationally embedded model of candidacy. It reorients research on women's election to office and offers strategies for political practitioners concerned about women's political equality. Video of a book talk given by Carroll and Sanbonmatsu available here.
Turning the Tables: Behind Every Successful Woman
by Kelly Dittmar
Book chapter in Women and Executive Office: Pathways and Performance, ed. Melody Rose, Lynne Reiner Publishers
This chapter analyzes the 2008 Democratic presidential primary to consider the ways in which a male spouse challenges a female candidate’s image as a capable and independent executive. Dittmar examines the media’s framing of both male and female spouses on the campaign trail and analyzes the extent to which coverage reflects a transgendering, or equal gender valuing, of candidate spouses’ roles. She finds a combination of spousal role evolution and constraint in media frames, simultaneously empowering presidential spouses while attributing greater gender power to the masculine partner – whether candidate or spouse.