Candidates and Campaigns
#WomenRun2016: U.S. Senate Outlook
by Kelly Dittmar, Ph.D.
While this year saw a record number of women filing for Senate races, November’s ballots won’t offer a record number of women nominees. Still, depending on how the most competitive races of the cycle break on November 8th, we may see a net increase in the number of women serving in the U.S. Senate in January 2017.
Officeholding in the Fifty States: The Pathways Women of Color Take to Statewide Elective Executive Office
by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Book chapter in Distinct Identities: Minority Women in U.S. Politics, edited by Nadia E. Brown and Sarah Allen Gershon (New York: Routledge Press, 2016)
This chapter investigates the pathways that women of color have taken to statewide elective executive office. Though underrepresented, a sufficient number of minority women have reached statewide executive office to make possible an initial analysis. The traditional scholarly focus on either race alone or gender alone has often obscured the situation of women of color. Yet, previous scholarship has shown that minority women’s access to office and pathways into office often differ from their male and White female counterparts. The chapter shows the gains of women of color, identifies patterns in their pathways to office, and explores the barriers that remain.
Why Not a Woman of Color?: The Candidacies of US Women of Color for Statewide Executive Office
by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Oxford University Press (September 2015)
This review essay focuses on the intersection of gender and race in statewide executive officeholding. The author argues that scholarly neglect of this topic risks naturalizing the dearth of women of color in statewide executive positions, sending the message that it is understandable that women lack access to those offices and/or that such offices aren’t realistically obtainable. Using data from the Center for American Women and Politics, the author examines the status of women of color in statewide offices and state and party patterns in their presence as candidates and officeholders. Directions for future research are suggested.
Electing Women of Color: The Role of Campaign Trainings
by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Journal of Women, Politics, & Policy (May 2015)
The increasing racial diversity of women in the United States makes the underrepresentation of women of color in politics an important area for research. To better understand the reasons for the underrepresentation of women of color and how more women of color might be elected in the future, this article presents a case study of a unique campaign training program designed for women of color. The program is the Center for American Women and Politics’ (CAWP) New Jersey Ready to Run® Diversity Initiative. Campaign trainings have proliferated in recent years and seem to play a disproportionate role in women’s election to office. By examining perceptions of the barriers facing women of color and by identifying the mechanisms by which the Diversity Initiative seeks to help women, this article sheds light on the status of women candidates of color and the role of campaign trainings more generally. For political practitioners, this article suggests the utility of creating programs for women of color.
Navigating Gendered Terrain: Stereotypes and Strategy in Political Campaigns
by Kelly Dittmar
Temple University Press, January 2015, 230 pages
From the presidential level down, men and women who run for political office confront different electoral realities. In her probing study, Navigating Gendered Terrain, Kelly Dittmar investigates how gender influences the campaign strategy and behavior of candidates today. Concurrently, she shows how candidates' strategic and tactical decisions can influence the gendered nature of campaign institutions.
The Changing Face of Representation: The Gender of U.S. Senators and Constituent Communications
by Kim L. Fridkin and Patrick J. Kenney, Arizona State University
University of Michigan Press, 2014, 256 pages
This book is part of the CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics published by the University of Michigan Press in association with CAWP. Fridkin and Kenney examine in detail senators' official websites, press releases and local news stories, as well as surveys of citizens to discern constituents' attitudes about their senators.
Money in Politics with a Gender Lens
A collaboration between the National Council for Research on Women, the Center for American Women and Politics (CAWP) at Rutgers University’s Eagleton Institute of Politics, and the Center for Responsive Politics
“Money in Politics with a Gender Lens” is the first attempt to explore the effects of the Citizens United decision by looking specifically at how women fared as candidates and acted as donors in elections held after the U.S. Supreme Court decision in 2010.
Gender in Campaigns for the U.S. House of Representatives
by Barbara Burrell, professor emeritus, Northern Illinois University
University of Michigan Press, 2014, 296 pages
This book is part of the CAWP Series in Gender and American Politics published by the University of Michigan Press in association with CAWP. Barbara Burrell presents a comprehensive comparative examination of men's and women's candidacies for the U.S. House of Representatives in elections from 1994 through 2012.
Women’s Election to Office in the Fifty States: Opportunities and Challenges
by Kira Sanbonmatsu
Book chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics,
Eds. Susan J. Carroll, CAWP, Rutgers University and Richard L. Fox, Union College, New York
Cambridge University Press, 2013 Third Edition, pp. 265-287.
Discussion of the barriers and opportunities women face in seeking state legislative and statewide executive office and the differences across states in women's officeholding. Party is a key factor in understanding women's candidacies and women's representation.
Cracking the ‘Highest, Hardest Glass Ceiling’: Women as Presidential and Vice Presidential Contenders
by Kelly Dittmar and Susan J. Carroll
Book chapter in Gender and Elections: Shaping the Future of American Politics (3rd Ed.), eds. Susan J. Carroll and Richard L. Fox. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 2013
This chapter focuses on the history and treatment of women as presidential and vice-presidential candidates. It begins with an overview of the pioneering women who have dared to step forward as presidential or vice-presidential candidates throughout American history. It then turns to the 2008 campaigns of Hillary Clinton and Sarah Palin, analyzing the ways that gender stereotypes influenced the strategies they employed, the media’s coverage of their campaigns, and public reactions to their candidacies. It also examines Michele Bachmann’s 2012 primary campaign, asking whether the pioneering candidacies of Clinton and Palin altered the path in any way for the women who will follow them as presidential and vice presidential candidates.