Increasing Diversity or More of the Same? Term Limits and the Representation of Women, Minorities, and Minority Women in State Legislatures
by Susan J. Carroll and Krista Jenkins National Political Science Review 10 (2005): 71-84
This paper examines the question of whether term limits lead to greater diversity among legislators in terms of their gender, race, and ethnicity. Their findings from an analysis of electoral outcomes in states where term limits were in effect in 1998 and 2000 suggest that the answer to the question of whether term limits lead to more diverse legislatures is not straightforward.
Women in State Government: Historical Overview and Current Trends
by Susan J. Carroll
Chapter in The Book of the States, edited by The Council of State Governments, 2004
Women have significantly increased their numbers among state government officials over the past several decades. However, despite a recent increase in the number of women governors, women’s progress, especially at the statewide elective and state legislative levels, has slowed. The future for women in state government would seem to depend, at least in part, upon the strength of efforts to actively recruit women for elective and appointive positions.
Impact of Women Public Officials
Women Political Appointees
"Have Women State Legislators In the United States Become More Conservative?: A Comparison of State Legislators in 2001 and 1988"
by Susan J. Carroll, Atlantis 27:2(2003): 128-139.
Carroll finds that: Women state legislators in the United States in 2001 are more liberal in their political ideology and policy attitudes than their male colleagues, just as they were in 1988. Nevertheless, a notable change is evident in the ideological predispositions of Republican Party women, especially in the lower houses of the legislatures. Republican women representatives in 2001 are more conservative and more like their male counterparts than they were in the late 1980s.
“Partisan Dynamics of the Gender Gap among State Legislators”
by Susan J. Carroll Spectrum: The Journal of State Government (Fall 2002)
Overall, women state legislators today are more liberal in their political ideology and policy attitudes than their male colleagues. Today’s gender gap is due more to the disproportionate number of Democrats among women legislators. The greatest change over time has taken place among Republican women representatives, who are more conservative and more like their male counterparts.
Unrealized Opportunity? Term Limits and the Representation of Women in State Legislatures
by Susan J. Carroll and Krista Jenkins Women & Politics 23:4 : 1-30
A general overview on the effect of term limits on the numbers of women in elective office.
Women and Term Limits
The Impact of Women in Public Office
Edited by Susan J. Carroll
Indiana University Press, 2001, 256 pages
The studies in this book examine the impact of women public officials serving in various offices and locales at local, state, and national levels. Order from Amazon and a percentage of the sale goes to CAWP.
Women State Legislators: Past, Present, and Future
Center for American Women and Politics, Eagleton Institute of Politics, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 2001, 14 pages
In 2001, CAWP surveyed female and male state legislators and compared the new data with prior CAWP research findings. The initial brief research reports include descriptions of women legislators today and comparisons with their male colleagues as well as with their 1988 counterparts.
by Susan J. Carroll Spectrum: The Journal of State Government, 2001, 3 pages
This article finds that "contrary to the expectation of term-limit advocates and many scholars, the number of women serving in term-limited statehouse seats actually decreased following the 1998 and 2000 elections."